Wednesday, February 01, 2017

Oracle SOA/BPM 12c: Contract WSDL Only in MDS?

In this posting I will discuss if it is a good idea to only have a (contract) WSDL in the MDS, and let your implementing composite point to that, instead of having a WSDL in the project itself (as well).

When developing SCA composites with JDeveloper, initially your WSDL will be in the project of the composite. Some people put a contract WSDL in the MDS, and then let the code of the SCA composite point to that (using an "oramds:/" reference), while removing the local one at the same time. The idea behind this that all projects using it, including the service provider itself, use exactly the same WSDL, and with that prevent conflicts. Good thinking but this is what you should know before doing so.

First the good news. 11g required that there was also a local WSDL. If you moved the WSDL to the MDS it would generate a wrapper WSDL that would be used in the code itself. The wrapper would then import the contract WDSL. Apart from the feeling that these wrappers seem to add overhead, I also experienced with some versions of JDeveloper that the wrapper and the contract WSDL could get out-of-sync. Sometimes fixing compilation issues because of that could become a difficult job indeed. With 12c this has improved. The wrapper WSDL is no longer generated, and so far I have not been able to reproduce any of the synchronization issues caused by changes in the project.

However, you may have some issues with control over publishing any update of the contract WSDL. If you need to update the WSDL, for example because you want to add an operation (not applicable to BPEL by the way) you have to change the contract WSDL in the MDS first. If you commit that to your version control system then somebody else could update it, and get the impression that the new operation is ready to use, while you still have to start implementing it.

There are two ways to work around it.

One option is to work with an MDS project that is specific to your composite. Meaning that, instead of 1 single project that you use to deploy all MDS artifacts at the same time, you create a small-scoped MDS project that contains all artifacts for one specific composite. That MDS project you add to the same workspace as the composite itself. So you can change the contract WSDL and work on the implementation without hindering anyone else until they need it. But then they get the new contract WSDL together with the updated composite itself.

Of course this option won't work when you share one single development environment, but that is a bad practice anyway. It also may require a change of the way you deploy the MDS and composites. Using tooling like Maven can help out here.

If this option does not work for you, then consider having a local as well as a contract WSDL. You change the local WSDL first, implement the new operation, and only after you are ready replace the contract WSDL.

In either case it is highly recommended that all public schemas are in the MDS only, before releasing the composite for usage. Otherwise you may encounter runtime issues with clashing element definitions, which you may only encounter when it is too late, for example after a restart of the server.

Friday, August 12, 2016

Oracle BPM 11g/12c: How to Catch an Event in the Same Process

A customer of mine was kind of surprised that when you throw an event in a component of a SCA composite, that the same component cannot catch that event and act upon it. This is a known limitation, for which there is a work-around, which I will discuss in this article.

The work-around is quite simple: another loosely coupled component in the same composite can listen to the event, so all you have to do is to create a BPEL or BPM process as-a-service that is subscribed to the event, and that interacts with the main process that you want to act upon it.

To show that a component cannot listen to its own event, and that the work-around actually works, I used the following test process. No worries, it looks more complex than it is.

The parent process above takes a parameter as input so that I can let it execute either one of the following three scenarios, which consist of throwing an event and then catch it:

  1. In the same (parent) process model
  2. In a reusable sub-process (called through a Call activity)
  3. In a process as-a-service that is called through a Send / Receive activity

There are 4 parallel flows between the OR-gateways:

  • The top flow has a Wait User activity to make it pause and waits for the event.
  • The second flow has a Call Child Call activity which calls the reusable process below.
  • The third flow has the Send/Receive activities to call the process as-a-service below.
  • The bottom one waits 2 seconds to give one of the other flows time to be activated, and then throws either one of two events, depending on whether I want to test catching it in the parent or in the reusable child (for this you cannot use the same event type, that's why).

Only 1 of the first 3 flows is activated at any time, while the last flow (with the events) is always activated. Furthermore the parent process has an Event Sub-process that listens to the event that is thrown by the Throw Internal Event event.

The reusable child is also very basic. It has a User activity to make it pause and wait for the event. It also has a an Event Sub-process that listens to the event that is thrown by the Throw Internal Event for Child event. If it is activated, it will map some variable to itself (to see something concrete in the audit trail), and then it will withdraw the Wait task.
The (child) process as-a-service does the same as the reusable child, except for that it has a start and end event which makes it an asynchronous BPM process as-a-service.
Now when you start an instance of the parent for each of the 3 scenarios, the result in Enterprise Manager is as below:
The instance at the bottom (1450067) belongs to the scenario where the parent tries to catch the event. Which fails as you can see by the fact that it is still running. And yes, I did make sure the Catch Event is correlated properly to the Start Event. The next instance (1450068) is the one that catches it, but as you can see they both are still running. When clicking on the second one, it somehow figured out that both instances are related, but the first instance won't act upon it.

The third instance (1450069) is that of the scenario where the reusable child tries to catch the event. From the fact that there is no other instance, you can see that it does not even listen to the event.

The fourth instance (1450070) is that of the parent that calls the child process as-a-service. The fifth (top) instance (1450071) is that of the child that catches the event, and then calls back the parent instance. As you can see, those are the only two instances that actually completed. So only in this scenario it actually works.

Friday, July 01, 2016

Oracle SOA: Using Sensors on Optional Elements

In this posting I describe an issue you may run into when configuring composite sensors on optional elements, and why it is good practice to always add a filter that checks if the element is actually present.

If you define a sensor on a composite to record elements that are optional, you may find an error in the logs similar to the below:

If that is the case you probably have a composite that takes a request with one or more optional elements, of which one or more are not provided, which then is transformed by an XSLT. I have only seen it in combination with a Mediator, but don't know if it would happen in case of BPEL or BPM as well.

For some reason (a product limitation, if not a bug) it will try to store the sensor with a null value, which will result in the above error. You will not see the error when the input is being mapped using XPath, as then it will not try to store the sensor.

To make it always work, the solution is to add a filter on the value to make it only store the value if the element is actually there. I will now explain how to do that.

Let's assume you have a payload like this:

If you want a sensor on the secondElement, you can add a sensor by right-mouse clicking the service and choose Configure Sensors:

For this optional element you should configure it as follows:

It may look a bit like overkill to always do it, but then again if you do it right away, you no longer have to worry about it later, as it will always work, XSLT or not. 

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Why in Oracle BPM/SOA Suite Attaching a Fault Policy to a Synchronous Service Is Not a Good Idea

In this posting I will explain why in the Oracle BPM/SOA Suite you should not attach fault policies to synchronous services.

This posting has been updated on July 1 2016 to explain why the recovery of ServiceA failed.

The other day I investigated some BPM process instance that had an unrecoverable error. It was calling a synchronous service, that on its turn was calling another synchronous service, that on its turn was calling a external, synchronous service exposed through the Oracle Service Bus. That latter call failed (due to a timeout). As all the composites were having a fault policy attached to them, it was expected that the instance was recoverable. Instead there was some JTA transaction error that rolled back all the way up to last dehydration point in the (top level) BPM process, and from there was retried two times before it finally gave up and went into a coma. Big surprise!

What I recommended to them to prevent this in the future, was the following:

  1. For all synchronous services detach the fault policy. Only attach fault policies to asynchronous and fire&forget services,
  2. Where possible, do asynchronous calls from the BPM process (instead of synchronous), 
  3. Wherever possible make all synchronous services idempotent or make them asynchronous / fire&forget.

If you want to understand why, read on!

Let's assume we have the following chain of services:

I created a FailingService that I can let succeed or fail depending on the input.

Now what happens when BPMProcess calls ServicePS with request 'fail' is the following:

  1. ServiceA errors because of the fault thrown by FailingService
  2. BPMProcess and ServicePS both error because of a timeout
  3. Because of fault policy attached to all them, all go into recoverable state (human intervention)

As ServiceA is in a recoverable state, why not try to recover and see if that will fix the flow?

Now what happens when a retry is done from ServiceA with payload 'normal' is the following:

  1. ServiceA completes successfully
  2. However, BPMProcess & ServicePS are still in recoverable state

The explanation for this is that, because ServicePS was already in a recoverable state, it will not receive the response from ServiceA, as it is no longer listening.

Now let's see what happens when we try to recover the instance of ProcessPS and change the payload from 'fail' to 'normal'

  1. Although the payload was changed to 'normal', we still end up with a new errored instance of ServiceA, as the request of the call from A to FailingService did not change with it (i.e. still 'fail')

In the meantime I understand why ServiceA still called the FailingService with payload 'fail' (I picked the wrong call to retry from the drop-down), but even if the call would have been successful, the FailingService would have been called twice, and let's just hope it is idempotent!

To prevent we get more of these duplicate calls, we recover the (top level) BPM instance instead.

Now what happens when a retry is done from BPMProces with payload 'normal' is the following:

  1. There are new (successful) calls to ServicePS -> ServiceA -> FailingService
  2. However, there are still running instances of ServicePS and ServiceA (they are still in a recoverable state)

The explanation being that these instances were still running after the previous (failed) attempt. So now we still have to abort these running instances to prevent duplicate calls. All in all not very convenient.

The solution is to never let an asynchronous service use a fault policy that either initiates human intervention or does 1 or more retries. The point being that in the meantime the consumer will have timed out, and never receive the response even it succeeds later on.

The best layer to handle errors with synchronous services is a layer that has 'knowledge' about the context of the process. Normally that is the business process itself. The reason being that a policy that fits one process may not fit another.

On the other hand, there are some good arguments for not letting system errors bubble all the way up to a business process. Instead you should consider handling it in the next layer below it - in this case being ServicePS - by making all calls from the business process to ServicePS either asynchronous, or fire&forget (the latter when successful continuation of the process is not depending upon the call). ServicePS will then handles the error using fault policies. You have two options to recover:

  • You recover the instance of ProcessPS, or (when that fails for whatever reason) 
  • Abort the instance of ProcessPS, and do an alter flow on the business process by moving the token from the Receive back to the Send activity. 

As a matter of fact, this customer actually created this ServicePS as a process-specific layer that sits in between the business process and any other service. A similar layer may not be feasible in your case, in which the solution would be to let the error bubble all the way up to the process instance and handle it there (using fault policies).

Thursday, May 12, 2016

Oracle BPM 12c: Browsing the SOAINFRA

In this article I discuss some tables from the SOAINFRA schema that might be most interesting to use when trying to find out why you don't see in Enterprise Manager what you expect.

Going from 11g to 12c, some things have significantly changed in the SOAINFRA schema. For example, your normal partners in helping with "what happened with my process?" type of queries, like the component_instance, and bpm_process tables, have become obsolete. On the other hand you have new friends with tables like sca_flow_instance, and sca_entity.

The following discusses some tables that you might want to look into when digging in the dirt of the SOA/BPM engine's intestines.

The tables I would like to discuss in more detail are:
- sca_flow_instance
- cube_instance
- wftask
- sca_entity
- bpm_cube_process
- bpm_cube_activity

Given that there is no official documentation on these tables, this is based on my observations an interpretations. No guarantee that these are flawless, so if you have anything to improve or add, let me know!

To better understand the data in the SOAINFRA in relation to an actual process, I used 1 composite with the following processes, that has two subprocesses (another BPM process and a BPEL process). The BPM subprocess has not been implemented as a reusable process (with a Call activity) but instead as a process-as-a-service.

As a side note: originally I created this process to be able to verify how the different states a process and its children can have, are represented in Enterprise Manager. The reason being that on one of my projects there were some doubts if this is always correct, given some issues in the past with 11g. With 12c I could find none. However, as the test case does not concern inter-composite interaction, nor does it include all types of technologies, you could argue that the test case is too limited to conclude anything from it. Also worth to mention is that the instances are ran on a server in development mode, and without in-memory optimization. I have heard rumors that you will observer different behavior when you disabled auditing completely. In some next posting I hope to discuss that as well.

I initiated several instances, for each possible state one:


As the name already suggests, this table contains 1 entry for each flow instance. You might be interested in the following columns:
  •   flow_id
  •   title
  •   active_component_instances
  •   recoverable_faults
  •   created_time
  •   updated_time

When queried this looks similar to this:

The query used is like this:

select sfi.flow_id
,      sfi.title
,      sfi.active_component_instances
,      sfi.recoverable_faults
,      sfi.created_time
,      sfi.updated_time
from  sca_flow_instance sfi
order by sfi.created_time


This table contains 1 entry for each component instance in the flow (e.g. bpmn, bpel). You might be interested in the following columns:
  • flow_id
  • composite_label (*)
  • cpst_inst_created_time (**)
  • composite_name
  • composite_revision
  • component_name
  • componenttype
  • state (of the component <== mention)
  • creation_date (incl time)
  • modify_date (incl time)
  • conversation_id

(*) corresponds with the bpm_cube_process.scalabel
(**) equals sca_flow_instance.created_time

When queried this looks similar to this:

The query used is like this:

select cis.flow_id
,      cis.componenttype
,      cis.component_name
,      cis.state
from   cube_instance cis
order by cis.flow_id


This table contains an entry for each open process activity and open or closed human activity. You might be interested in the following columns:
  • flow_id
  • instanceid
  • processname
  • accesskey (not for human tasks) (*)
  • createddate
  • updateddate
  • (only in case of human tasks, the flex fields)
  • componentname
  • compositename (not for human tasks)
  • conversationid
  • componenttype (***)
  • activityname
  • activityid (****)
  • component_instance_id (only for human tasks)
  • state (*****)

(*) : the type of activity, e.g. USER_TASK, INCLUSIVE_GATEWAY, END_EVENT
(**) not for human tasks
(***) e.g. Workflow, BPMN
(****) Corresponds with the activityid of bpm_cube_activity. The user activity and its corresponding human task appear to have the same activityid. After the human task is completed, the user activity disappears but the human task is kept with an null state.
(*****) e.g. OPEN for running activities, ASSIGNED for running human tasks. Other states are ABORTED, PENDING_MIGRATION_SUSPENDED, ERRORED, etc.

When queried this looks similar to this:

The query used is like this:

select wft.instanceid
,      wft.processname
,      wft.accesskey
,      wft.createddate
,      wft.updateddate
,      wft.componentname
,      wft.compositename
,      wft.conversationid
,      wft.componenttype
,      wft.activityname
,      wft.activityid
,      wft.component_instance_id
,      wft.state
from   wftask wft
where  wft.flow_id = 130001
order by wft.updateddate


This table contains an entry for each SCA entity (e.g. service, wire). The following column might be of use:
  •  id
  •  composite (name)
  •  label (corresponds with the scalabel of bpm_cube_process)

When queried this looks similar to this:

The query used is like this:

select sen.composite
,      sen.label
from   sca_entity sen
where  sen.composite = 'FlowState'
order by sen.composite


This table contains metadata. For each deployed composite it contains an entry for each BPM process. If 2 BPM processes in once composite: 2 entries. The following columns might be of use:
  • domainname
  • compositename
  • revision
  • processid
  • processname
  • scalabel
  • compositedn
  • creationdate  (incl time)
  • undeploydate
  • migrationstatus (*)
(*) Values are LATEST, MIGRATED.

When queried this looks similar to this:

The query used is like this:

select bcp.domainname
,      bcp.compositename
,      bcp.revision
,      bcp.processname
,      bcp.processid
,      bcp.scalabel
,      bcp.compositedn
,      bcp.creationdate
,      bcp.undeploydate
,      bcp.migrationstatus
from   bpm_cube_process bcp
where  bcp.compositename = 'FlowState'
order by bcp.processname
,        bcp.creationdate


This table contains metadata, There is an entry for each individual activity, event, and gateway of a bpmn process. The following column might be of use:
  • processid (corresponds with the bpm_cube_process.processid)
  • activityid
  • activityname (technical, internal name can be found in the .bpmn source)
  • activitytype (e.g. START_EVENT, SCRIPT_TASK, CALL_ACTIVITY, etc.)
  • label (name as in the BPMN diagram)
The rows in the example below have been queried by a join with the bpm_cube_process table on processid, where undeploydate is not null and migrationstatus is 'LATEST' to get only the activities of the last revision of one particular process:

The query used is like this:

select cbi.flow_id
,      cbi.composite_label
,      cbi.cpst_inst_created_time
,      cbi.composite_name
,      cbi.composite_revision
,      cbi.component_name
,      cbi.componenttype
,      cbi.state
,      cbi.creation_date
,      cbi.modify_date
,      cbi.conversation_id
from   cube_instance cbi
order by cbi.creation_date

Obsolete Tables

The following table have become obsolete:
  • bpm_activity
  • bpm_activity_instance
  • bpm_cube_activity_instance
  • bpm_process
  • component_instance
The composite_instance is still used, but more or less superseded by the sca_flow_instance (although the number of instances are not the same). I do not longer find it useful to query.

Monday, March 21, 2016

Oracle BPM 11g: Mapping Empty Elements

In this blog article I explain what happens with mappings for which the source is empty, and you map it to an optional or mandatory element. The scenarios described in this article are based on SOA / BPEL 11g. In some next article I will describe what happens when you do the same in SOA 12c (which is not the same).

Let's assume we have a data structure like this:

And let's assume we have a BPEL that takes a message of the above type as input, and - using a couple of different scenarios - maps it to another element of the same type as output.

The table below shows what happens when you map empty data to a mandatory or optional element (i.e. minOccurs="0"), taking payload validation into consideration, as well as making use of the "ignoreMissingFromData" and "insertMissingToData" features of XPath mappings (only available in BPEL and not in BPM). In the below "null" means that the element is not there at all, "empty" means that the element is there but has no value. As you can see from the XSD an emtpy value is nowhere allowed (otherwise it should have an attribute xsi:nill with value "true").

As you can see, disabling payload validation will lead to corrupt data. But even with payload validation on you may get a result that might not be valid in the context of usage, like an empty mandatory or optional element. Unless empty is a valid value, you should make sure that optional elements are not there when they have no value.

To set "ignoreMissingFrom" and "insertMissingToData", right-mouse click the mapping and toggle the values:

When using the "ignoreMissingFromData" feature with a null optional element mapped to itself, the result is as on the left below. When also the "insertMissingToData" feature is used, the result is as on the right:

Mind that the "insertMissingToData" feature also leads to namespace prefixes for each element.

Thursday, November 12, 2015

How to Keep Your Business Process Looking Simple

There are two key words in Business Process Management Notation (and Language) or BPMN for short that very often seemed to be missed. The first is "business" the second "management". In this posting I will discuss the significance of the first, and how you are in control of that.

In BPMN the word business does not wants to express that it is "just" about modeling business processes. The idea is also that these models should be understandable, or even created by the business. Now one can argue that with respect to the latter BPMN does not always seems to deliver on the promise, or at least not for every business. But I know of a few cases where the business analyst creates the non-technical versions of the model (level 1, and 2 as Bruce Silver would call them), and I know of a significant amount of cases where the business or at least the analyst is able to understand BPMN process models. That is to say, if these models have not been cluttered with technical details.

Unfortunately this cluttering happens quicker that you wish, and too often the executable process models are almost beyond comprehension for the business, while there is no good reason for that. And that is too bad, because you then miss the opportunity to let the executable process model being validated by that business. Observing how process modeling is done at some of my projects, unfortunately I have to conclude that quite a few people are not aware of the problem or don't know how to prevent it, and as I did not (yet) found any references that gives a comprehensive overview of the options offered by the Oracle BPM Suite that can help you out, I discuss them in the following.

Embedded Sub-Process

The embedded sub-process is one of the options that most people are aware of, and (generally) reasonably well used. In the example below an embedded sub-process with name "Store Order" contains a script activity "Create Message Header" that constructs the header for the message to be used in the service call activity "Save Order Data". By simply collapsing the embedded sub-process the technical details of how an order is stored, can be hidden for the business that typically does not want to know that a header needs to be created. One could argue they should not even be interested in the fact that this is done synchronously (using a service activity) instead of asynchronously (using a send and receive activity), which also is conveniently hidden by the embedded sub-process.

Except for using it to hide technical details, embedded sub-processes can also be used to determine a scope. This can be done from a business perspective (for example to determine a scope of activities that might be repeated or for which multiple instances should be handled in parallel), but also from a technical perspective (for example as a scope for temporary variables, or exception handling).

The issue I often see with embedded sub-process in action, is that developers very often do not bother collapsing them, still exposing technical details to the business.

One should be aware of a couple of aspects concerning embedded sub-processes. The first is that they are not reusable (meaning you cannot use them elsewhere in the same or any other process model). The second that they come with a little overhead from an audit perspective, as every embedded sub-process results in 2 extra entries (one for the start and one for the end of it).

Reusable Sub-process

A reusable sub-process is created as a separate process. The only thing that distinguishes it from other types of processes, is that it has a none start as well as a none end event, and it cannot have an initiator activity. As the name already suggests, a reusable sub-process is never started directly, but only by calling it from some parent process. This is done by the Call activity.

Going back to the step in the example where we want to save order data, and let's assume the order has to be updated more than once, than this makes it a typical candidate for reuse. In the following example a reusable "Order Storage" reusable sub-process has been created that contains this functionality. It has been made a little bit more complex by including a notification activity that will notify the sales representative every time an update of the order has taken place.

The reusable sub-process has access to the /project/ variables (by value), and its own /process/ variables. In other words, the reusable sub-process has access to the "order" project variable. A choice has been made to pass on the email address of the one that has been notified, as an argument. In the reusable sub-process this email address is stored in a (local) "email" process variable.

The choice to define a variable at project versus process level should be made carefully. Project variables are global variables with the following properties:
  • In case of functionality that is executed in parallel, one should be careful that the parallel threads do not make conflicting changes to the same project variable.
  • Simple type project variables are mapped to protected attributes (also known as mapped attributes or flex field), of which there is a limited number (for example 20 protected text attributes). Their values are stored in separated columns (instead of part of the process payload).
  • The lifespan of a project variable is from its initialization up to the end of the (main) process instance.
Like an embedded sub-process, a reusable sub-process is executed in the same thread. A reusable sub-process is only reusable in the same BPM project (composite) and cannot be shared with other projects. A reusable sub-process adds a little bit more auditing overhead than the embedded sub-process to auditing.

Finally, up to version 12.1.2 a Call activity in a BPM project makes it incompatible with any other revision, meaning that you cannot migrate instances. Period. Not even when you deploy the same revision without changing any bit of your code. For most customers I work with, this is a major limitation, and some therefore choose not to use reusable sub-processes.

Process As a Service

The next alternative to a reusable sub-process is the process-as-a-service, which means that you start it with a message start event or send activity. Any response is returned by a message end event or receive activity. As long as the process-as-a-service is part of the same BPM project (composite) it can make use of the project variables, but only by definition, not by value. So all data has to be mapped to and from the process. You can put the process in the same composite, or put it in a composite of its own. The criteria to do the latter would be reuse over composites. When in a separate composite, you cannot reuse the business objects, nor the project variable definitions.

From a functional perspective, the process-as-a-service is equivalent to a reusable sub-process. From a technical perspective it requires more work if you implement it in a separate composite, and it will add extra overhead to auditing (not only BPM auditing, but also every instance will have its own entry in the COMPOSITE_INSTANCE and CUBE_INSTANCE tables). In 11g you will also have to create some custom mechanism to propagate cancellation of the parent instance to child instances, but in 12c this is automatically done (see also

Detail Activity

Since 12c you can "detail" an activity. With that you can hide logic that is tightly related to an activity, but has to be done using an activity of its own. From the outside a detailed activity looks like any other activity, and keeps the original icon associated with it. The fact that it is detailed you can see by a + sign at the bottom, very much like an embedded sub-process. And basically that is what it is, a specialized embedded activity. You can even have local variables, and in the structure pane it is represented as an embedded sub-process. Again, to keep the business process a "business" process you should try not to get over-exited and put all sorts of logic in it that really belongs somewhere else. Use it only for logic that is tightly coupled to the main activity, but of any importance to the business.

In the following example I have implemented a call to some service that has to happen right after the user activity. It is a technical service call that we don't want to bother the business with, as it concerns a call to a service to confirm the order to the customer. As far as the business is concerned, this is an integral part of the Contact Provider activity, and they should not care if that service is called from the UI or from the process for that matter.

Hope you can make good use of this, and let me know if you have any other suggestion!!